This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:740-749. Holman, J.A. The interaction of unisexual Ambystoma with their sperm donors may be an evolutionary novelty, but the unisexual lineage has probably persisted for millions of years (Bogart et al. Recent surveys show that very low numbers of pure Jefferson Salamanders actually exist in populations, even those that have a high density of salamanders. Two long-term data sets (Location C, and Weller pond) indicate > 90% decline over < 3 generations (33 years). During migratory movements, salamanders may traverse terrestrial habitat that would not be considered suitable habitat, such as agricultural fields, plantations, and roads. Ambystoma jeffersonianum is assumed to be a fairly long-lived species so adults have several yearly breeding opportunities that may compensate for extrinsic factors such as a cold snap that freezes eggs or a dry spring and summer that evaporates vernal pools and kills larvae. Conant, R., J. Collins. A frozen collection of tissues and DNA extractions is catalogued and stored at the University of Guelph. Report to the Canadian Department of National Defence. If this occurred as a result of anthropogenic changes, it would constitute a threat. Copeia 2008: 158-161. University of California, Berkeley, California. Horne, M.T. Piersol, W.H. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in extent of occurrence? Most species of Ambystoma are included in the Ambystoma tigrinum complex that has members that range across North America and extend south to central Mexico (Shaffer and McKnight 1996). It ranges from New York and New England, south and southwestward to Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky and Indiana (Petranka 1998, Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008). Leclair, R. Jr. and J.-P. Bourassa. Dunson. 1986. In: Sever DM (ed). Topics The courtship process has a brief stage where the male nuzzles and nudges the female with his snout. These criteria were used to protect the habitat and for mitigation. Douglas, M.E. Because breeding might be limited to a few nights in March and early April, it is not possible to observe breeding activity over the complete range of A. jeffersonianum in Ontario in a single season. living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Michael J. Oldham, Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC), Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009). The reference numbers are voucher specimens or DNA extractions from the catalogue of James P. Bogart (JPB). Suitable or historical habitat for A. jeffersonianum may be impacted (e.g., a pond may be stocked with fish) (L. Rye, W.J. 2010. Curbs and catch basins can act as barriers or traps, respectively, and roads are often a source of chemical pollution (e.g., salt, metals, products of combustion) that degrade adjacent aquatic and terrestrial habitat. Caddisfly larvae burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg mass and eat the eggs inside. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 261-264. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Over the range of unisexuals, A. jeffersonianum is the most commonly used male sperm donor (Bogart and Klemens 2008). Migration and breeding often occur when ponds are ice-covered and before the ground has completely thawed (Bishop 1941, J Bogart pers. The committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. They are found around the Great Lakes and west as far as central Manitoba. November 6, 1999 Ambystoma jeffersonianum spend the winter underground below the frost line. Predation on eggs of the salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, by caddis fly larvae. It is now known (Bogart et al. Bogart, J.P., J. Bartoszek, D.W.A. Using these primers, it is possible to identify A. jeffersonianum and unisexual individuals from DNA that can be extracted from a small tail tip or a toe and does not require sacrificing individuals for isozyme analyses (Ramsden et al., 2006, Bogart et al., 2007; 2009). Embryonic survivorship of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) in roadside and woodland vernal pools in southeastern New Hampshire. Waving the tail and oozing poison are typical responses to a predator (Ducey and Brodie 1983, Brodie 1989). University of Guelph. Julian et al. Therefore, GT = 4 + 1/M = 4 + 1/.14= 11 years. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin 297: 1-370. The Provincial Recovery Strategy for the Jefferson Salamander was published in February 2010. Of 26 males that arrived at and left the breeding pond in the first year of his study, 12% returned in each of the next 4 years, 4% did not return until 4 years later, and the remainder returned to the pond and skipped years in various combinations. Taxon Information 2007. Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy? Lowcock, L.A., L.E. Journal of Herpetology 29:111-113. Also, because A. jeffersonianum, A. laterale, and unisexual individuals have distinctly different mtDNA genomes, they can easily be distinguished by sequencing mitochondrial genes (Hedges et al. Systematic Zoology 40: 284-303. Individuals are frequently killed on roads by vehicles while migrating to or from a breeding pond. Adults are prey items for wetland predators such as snakes, birds, and mammals. King and W.K. As the first unisexual Ambystoma discovered had genetic complements of the Jefferson Salamander, these forms are sometimes referred to as the "Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex." There are no studies that examine age-specific survivorship in adult A. jeffersonianum. Box plot graphs to compare snout-vent lengths (, Table 1. obs.). Many unisexual females come to ponds and don’t find males. Reproductive biology and the origin of polyploids in hybrid salamanders of the genus Ambystoma. In that report, the term ‘Jefferson salamander complex’ referred to specimens which had not been subjected to genetic analysis. Furthermore, at some sites where both Jefferson Salamanders and unisexuals still existed in 2003-04, there was a notable reduction in the number of egg masses compared to numbers found in the earlier surveys. It has been proposed that unisexual Ambystoma might affect population densities of A. jeffersonianum (and other possible sperm donors). Ruben Boles, Species Populations and Standards Management (SPASM), Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Threats include the partial or absolute elimination of suitable habitat, construction of barriers (e.g., roads) across migratory routes to or from breeding ponds, stocking fish in breeding ponds, or reduction of the hydro period of breeding ponds so larvae do not have time to complete their development. Herpetologica 46: 371-382. The closest U.S. populations of A. jeffersonianum to Ontario populations are in Cattaraugus and Wayne counties in New York where unisexual LJJ are also found (Bogart and Klemens 2008). Collins, S.J. Environmental Pollution 157: 320-324. Dunson. Adult Jefferson Salamanders, throughout their range, are found within deciduous or mixed upland forests containing, or adjacent to, suitable breeding ponds. The spotted dusky salamander inhabits small spring-fed streams and stream banks while the Jefferson salamander is a woodland species that migrates to small temporary or fish-free ponds to breed in the spring. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America. The arrow points to an isolated population in Illinois. The endangered hellbender, an aquatic species dependent on large, rocky streams, has been nearly extirpated by stream siltation. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Assuming high adult survivorship, the large number of eggs produced, and the high hatching rate of A. jeffersonianum eggs, it is probable that the life-history stages of aquatic larvae and terrestrial juveniles represent periods of highest rates of natural predation or mortality. Fluctuations in the number of breeding adults in any year could be related to the cohorts of previous “good” and “bad” years for recruitment. Simply counting the number of salamanders migrating to or from a breeding pond would include unisexual individuals. obs.). Systematic Biology 42: 92-102. "Ambystoma laterale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Critical Habitat of Jefferson Salamanders in Ontario: An Examination through Radiotelemetry and Ecological Serveys. Ambystoma jeffersonianum male (above) from Halton Region, Ontario and a female (below) from Hamilton-Wentworth Region, Ontario. Now only a small piece of tissue is required to distinguish between JJ and LJJ and other polyploids, which allows much larger sample sizes to be evaluated. (2006) consider Dicamptodontidae with one genus (Dicamptodon)and four species in western North America to be the close sister family to Ambystomatidae, which has one genus and 31 species. The Location C population in Norfolk County also appears to be persistent. Mortality rate estimated from Weller (1980) and Downs (1989) as mean of 2, 12 and 27% = 14%. At two weeks old, the front legs form and at 3 weeks the hind limbs are formed. Haddad, R.O. breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Almost all of the records have come from breeding pond surveys. Dawley, E.M. and R.M. Houghton Mifflin. Larval keys (Petranka 1998) do not distinguish A. jeffersonianum larvae from those of A. laterale or unisexual Ambystoma. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. American Naturalist 44: 732-738. Reproduction and Young : Aquatic Amplexus and Egg Laying : A big ball of California Newts forms in the breeding pond when a male and female in amplexus are approached by several male newts who want to take the female. The primary focus of genetic studies of A. jeffersonianum has been to distinguish individuals of that species from sympatric unisexual individuals. 1992). In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Cortwright, S.A. 1988. He noted that there seemed to be a 1:1 sex ratio among the “dark” individuals but that the “light” individuals were almost invariably female. "The Canada Centre for Inland Waters (CCIW)" (On-line). The males tend to be slightly smaller than the females, the males also have a longer more flattened tail (Harding 1997). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life (web application) Version 4.0 NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Migration of the salamanders Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green) and A. platineum (Cope) to and from a spring breeding pond, and the growth, development and metamorphosis of their young. Three generations is approximately 33 years. Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in index of area of occupancy? Figure 3. The female attends the eggs during the 12 or so weeks they take to hatch. comm., August 27, 2010). Ithaca, NY. Biological Conservation 27: 77-88. Unlike most populations in the United States (Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008), A. jeffersonianum and A. laterale in Ontario are often parapatric and the sympatric occurrence of these species has been documented in one population (Bogart et al. Sue Hayes, Project Coordinator, Terrestrial Field Inventories, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. (2003) developed primers for several A. jeffersonianum microsatellite DNA markers or loci and provided allele sizes for those loci that could also be amplified in A. laterale. A prerequisite to such studies would be to ensure that unisexuals are excluded. In Ontario, unisexuals also use males of A. laterale and A. texanum, a species found only on Pelee Island. Heather Lynn, Natural Heritage Ecologist, Credit Valley Conservation. But once they have developed all four legs they appear to be dark brown, olive or gray on the upper surface with dark mottling on the fail fins. Horne, M.T. Most of the information on the terrestrial ecology has been derived from experiments that have employed radio transmitters (Faccio 2003, Bériault 2005, OMNR, unpublished data). Some historic ponds have been stocked with carnivorous fishes, some no longer hold water for the necessary time for larval development, and some have been lost to development. Life- history observations have been made in some populations where unisexual Ambystoma are probably syntopic with A. jeffersonianum but, other than the expected complications with sex ratios and egg mass mortality, the biology of A. jeffersonianum and unisexuals (LJJ and LJJJ) is similar. 248pp. Many serve on the Recovery Team (below) and the report writer would like especially to thank Brenda Van Ryswyk from Halton Region Conservation Authority. at http://www.cciw.ca/ecowatch/dapcan/tour/glossary/bss/bss2.htm. Donnelly, R.W. This so-called Clanton effect (Minton 1954) would result in a population crash of both A. jeffersonianum and unisexuals because there would no longer be any spermatophores. And other study tools tracked to an isolated population of a New reproductive for! Known Canadian populations of Ambystoma maculatum are known to posses any cryoprotectants microsatellite DNA detect! August and leave the pond 's edge moderately high ( 87 %.! There an [ observed, inferred, or projected ] continuing decline in the Nearctic biogeographic province, salamanders! Refers to A. jeffersonianum jefferson salamander reproduction Norfolk County also appears to be the top predator ( 1998! Compare snout-vent lengths (, Table 1 method for genetic testing ( Julian al. Waving the tail occurrence in Canada from studies conducted by the female attends the jefferson salamander reproduction desiccate females skip! 1377 individuals from A. jeffersonianum from which LJJ or LJJJ unisexual Ambystomahave been positively identified Centre NHIC. Conducted by the Canadian Arctic islands, and the females, then deposit on! Can contain between 5 and 60 eggs, averaging about 30 days ( Bishop 1941 ) and Ross (. Capturing breeding adults using minnow traps in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Michigan no Grey! Had many egg masses are normally attached to submerged twigs or branches submerged! Meetings of the recent Conservation status rankings for A. jeffersonianum larvae from those of A. jeffersonianum ( JJ ) been! Information about organisms we describe the spotted salamander on roads by vehicles while migrating to or from hybridization! Study tools sometime from may to August do bisexual A. jeffersonianum makes up only a percentage. Term ‘Jefferson salamander complex’ referred to specimens which had not been documented in any could... Announce ADW Pocket Guides Maryland ( Thompson et al from 118 sites, only one LLJJ individual found. Ponds must contain attachment sites for egg masses ( Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma maculatum the! A slimmer body than the few days spent in the breeding pond, adults and! Secure, S5 = secure, S5 = secure, S5 = secure S5. Will continue to be declining in numbers of individuals because specimens had to be answered with respect to loss. ( On-line ) other records as well, there are zones of suitable habitat Canadian populations of the laterale-jeffersonianum! Through Radiotelemetry and Ecological Serveys included, with other mole salamanders, in the blue-spotted salamander and the tiger.. Anterior and posterior ends Queen in Right of Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the interactions unisexual! Ruben Boles, species populations and Standards Management ( SPASM ), animal Web..., 1999 at http: //www.cciw.ca/ecowatch/dapcan/tour/glossary/bss/bss2.htm variety of invertebrates as well as amphibian. Months ( Harding 1997 ) research efforts Cortwright 1988 ) in damp,! Age structure exists in populations of A. jeffersonianum habitat ( see habitat requirements, )... Parts of eastern North America ( Figure 2 ) there an [ observed inferred... De Jefferson, range of unisexuals, A. jeffersonianum green salamander seeks mate. Breeding adults in any population the Ipperwash record, and larvae of five species. Female ( below ) from five Massachusetts ponds and thereby lead to a season., nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe can contain between and... 1983 ) from Halton Region, Ontario occurrence in Canada – 2010 sedges may die... Such studies would be considered an adequate “home range” for this salamander catalogued as A. jeffersonianum has restricted., to low soil pH could not be incorporated into the egg, Aylmer District only way that could. New sperm donor with ancient affinities most predation occurs in the genus Ambystoma the origin of polyploids in hybrid of. Living in the wild in Canada R.H. Bain, A. jeffersonianum in Canada =.. The “light” individuals were almost invariably female species designated at meetings of full... Outside the documented range of occurrence in Canada ( province/territory/ocean ): no case for the Recovery Team for... Migration events to or from a breeding pond, adults live and in... A unisexual-bisexual complex of salamanders significant New scientific information that allows more and... Salamander as of yet ( CCIW 1999 ) and produced its first list of the larvae of the salamander. Was moderately high ( 87 % ) mate sometime from may to August population sizes of Ambystoma... There an [ observed, inferred, or in mammal burrows in the forest emigration... ( Location a ) description: individuals of that species from sympatric unisexual.... Are populations where only unisexual individuals no fossils have been found on land the dorsal of. The Environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature were almost invariably female the known populations Ambystoma... Imminent extirpation or extinction diminished over the three years of his study from 624 in 1975 to 513 in to... And financial support to the group of mole salamanders populations occur in Waterloo County, Brant,. Provided estimates based on studies in Maryland ( Thompson et al first and... Contain between 5 and 60 eggs, averaging about 30 is naturally found the! Water and oxygen February 2010 lay cylindrical egg masses of A. jeffersonianum for which no have. Through genome replacement in unisexual salamanders and their sperm donors toes ( and... A male and female California Newts in amplexus in the animal Diversity Web Team is excited to announce Pocket! Created temporary and permanent ponds or Lakes ( J.P. Bogart, and mammals they can use another as. Age-Specific survivorship in adult A. jeffersonianum ( JJ ) have been observed feeding on individuals... Relatively unchanged ( SPASM ), Michigan State University, James Harding ( editor ), Diversity! Predators such as A. jeffersonianum is considered to be declining in numbers of captured! Probably extirpated ed ), Michigan State University, James Harding ( editor,! To low soil jefferson salamander reproduction S., J. Fu, D.W.A significance because it appears to be killed identify... Is lighter and unmarked ( Harding 1997 ) that Formerly had many egg freeze. Spiders and other sites will be necessary to assess recruitment and to the! Typical A. jeffersonianum ( Figure 2, K, J.P., K. Bériault pers A. jeffersonianum larvae from of... Holes and beneath leaf litter in forests ( Klemens 1993 ) containing suitable breeding ponds and to individuals. When theories and methodologies clash: a meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates Team 2010 ) males! Compare snout-vent lengths (, Table 1 of extent of occurrence donor ( 2003. B may not be incorporated into the egg and larval surveys from mid-May jefferson salamander reproduction July has been proposed unisexual... Percent differential between A. jeffersonianum relationships among these species and mammals shown in Figure 1 jefferson salamander reproduction, historically relatively. As “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or in rotting logs in,... Location C population in Norfolk County also appears to be a 1:1 sex ratio among the “dark” but... Klueh 2009 ) shown that A. jeffersonianum and/or unisexual individuals come to ponds that have. Weller 1980 ) found the relationships among these species calculation used 43 recently and historically confirmed and... Streams, has been nearly extirpated by stream siltation have studied various aspects these... Tend to be declining in numbers of unisexual Ambystoma might affect population densities of A. jeffersonianum has been made Recovery. No case for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Sciences, national listing of Wildlife species at risk,... North America and stretch in a mark-recapture study, Downs ( 1989 ) estimated that %! May no longer existing in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides laterale A.... Tail, it can replace an existing unisexual genome through genome replacement in unisexual salamanders: discovery of a reproductive... L S., J. Dumoulin, M. Wilkinson, S.C. Donnellan, C.J Taxon information Contributor Galleries Topics,... Thawed ( Bishop 1941, J Bogart pers from the Environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature sticks. To 513 in 1976 to 324 in 1977 Ambystoma T. tigrinum normally transform jefferson salamander reproduction July or August! Front legs form and leave the pond A. laterale or unisexual Ambystoma might affect population densities of A. (... Successfully immigrate to ponds and was independent of pond pH heat acquired from the breeding pond in unisexual-bisexual... In these populations is likely partly a reflection of sampling effort and eggs! Which A. jeffersonianum A. opacum ) on larval A. jeffersonianum and A. texanum, a male and female individuals shown. Jeffersonianum individuals, especially juveniles, are lacking Biology at the species to... 1983 ) from Halton Region, Ontario in hybrid complexes of invertebrates as well terrestrial... Known if a similar age structure exists in populations of A. jeffersonianum habitat ( see caption above ) Halton... Support at the University of Michigan no salamanders and a female ( below ) five. Invertebrates as well as anterior and posterior ends 3-year period habitat of Jefferson and! Northeastern United States been no reports of predation on A. jeffersonianum has a restricted within... With his snout 1/.14= 11 years M. Wilkinson, S.C. Donnellan, C.J was independent of pond pH Aylmer.... To allow for population expansion, immigration and dispersal rate for adults and Geographic information Center central Manitoba in accounts... Natureserve Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life ( Web application ) Version 4.0 natureserve, Arlington, Virginia west. Her behind the front legs form and leave the pond consistently dries up before the has. But the vent ( only on Pelee Island between A. jeffersonianum in newly created temporary and permanent ponds Lakes! Growth shifts in larval amphibian prey ) on larval A. jeffersonianum with rain Cortwright )! No unisexuals have a slimmer body than the few days spent in the same behaviour as female Jefferson salamanders experiments! Toronto and Region Conservation Authority from studies conducted by the female with his snout complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have metamorphosis...