Did you know that 37 million Americans have some level of gum disease? … Nunn ME. Risk factors are defined as “any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.”9World Health Organization. Risk factors include genetics, ethnicity, advancing age, smoking, diabetes, specific medications, impaired nutrition, poor oral hygiene, poor dental restorations, hormonal variations, immunocompromised status, connective tissue diseases and previous history of periodontal disease. The local factors include pre‐existing disease as evidenced by deep probing depths and plaque retention areas associated with defective restorations. Environmental risk factors for the onset, progression and severity of periodontal disease include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, poor nutrition, stress, some med… References. Smoking/Vaping: This is the strongest environmental risk factor for periodontal disease. Poor oral health habits 3. Researchers have found periodontal bacteria in … Certain contributing risk factors include tobacco use, health conditions such as diabetes, and certain hormonal changes … Any mouth infections during pregnancy, including periodontal infections, can place a baby’s health at risk. 2013;62:59–94. The inflammation of the gums in combination with poor oral hygiene can cause severe periodontal disease. Tobacco use is one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal diseases. Substance abuse 5. Gingivitis 2. Fillings that have become defective 9. Other dental problems. In fact, smoking may be responsible for more than half of the cases of periodontal diseases among adults in the United States. Gum Disease Risk Factors. People with more advanced periodontal disease have been found to be at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, chronic respiratory disease, pregnancy complications and dementia. This means that each person has their own level of risk for periodontal disease. Emotional stress may have negative effects on immune system, increasing the potential of a bacterial infection to develop and cause periodontal disease. 1. 2002;29:177-206. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.290109.x. Substance abuse 7. However, assessment of oral health history including periodontal status in COVID-19 patients has not been reported. Female hormonal changes, such as with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives Clenching or grinding teeth can put the supporting tissues of the teeth under excessive force, damaging the periodontal ligament structures. mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. Genetics 3. Inadequate nutrition 4. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. Genetic causes are also linked with some rare early onset types of periodontal diseases in younger age patients with otherwise good oral health. Almost 70% of patients who have periodontal disease are smokers, current or past. Diabetes 3. Your dentist can help you identify your risk factors and offer ways to reduce them. Smoking or chewing tobacco 4. Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes 11. Periodontal disease is generally due to bacteria in the mouth infecting the tissue around the teeth. The risk factors for developing these diseases are prior history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, implant cement beyond the margin of the crown, occlusal overload and genetic factors. Using a computer-based system, risk was established on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). K Post Graduate Mamata Dental College 2. Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause 6. Any rise in the female hormones level makes women during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and those using oral contraceptives more susceptible to gum diseases. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. by either contributing to the formation of bacterial plaque or/and by reducing the body’s ability to respond to bacterial infections. Socioeconomic Factors. This condition occurs when bacteria gather in pockets in your gums. Mouth breathing can cause dry mouth increasing the risk of gum disease. Tobacco’s negative effects on periodontal health are well documented. Stress 5. Among the most common are: heredity, smoking, diabetes, stress, medication, nutrition, poor oral hygiene, faulty dentistry, hormonal variations, immunocompromise, connective tissue diseases, … Taking medications that cause dry mouth 10. 26-28 Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Smoking also can make treatment for gum disease less successful. Viewed globally, the oral-health care professions face only two adversaries: dental caries and periodontal disease. A diet rich in sugars or acids can provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease. But all risk factors are not created equal. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A diet low in important nutrients can reduce the ability of the immune system to fight infections, therefore making it easier for dental plaque to cause gum disease. Uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis from November 2015 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Trisha O`Hehir, RDH, BS. Start studying Risk factors for Periodontal Disease. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: Risk factors that may make older people more susceptible include general health status, diminished immune status, medications, depression, worsening memory, decreased salivary flow, Implants in function for a significant number years can develop peri-implantitis. If you have a number of risk factors, call us to schedule an appointment. This risk may be as high as 7 to 20 %. Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. Socioeconomic Status – Lack of access to care increase risk of oral disease. Conditions that cause decrea… Not only does that appointment rid your teeth and gums of harmful bacteria, the visit also allows you to ask your dental team about your own risk factors for gum disease. The most common risk factors for developing gum disease are: Several studies indicate that may persons have a predisposal to gum disease. These factors should be investigated during a thorough dental examination of the patient (Box 4-1). Although men and women of all ages suffer from the condition, there are certain factors that can dramatically raise your risk of developing periodontal disease. Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease Many risk factors increase the likelihood of periodontal disease development, as well as the severity and speed at which it may occur. Heredity 6. While the main cause of periodontal disease is plaque bacteria, many other risk factors affect your gums and how your body fights a gum infection. Poor oral hygiene due to morning sickness, and increased vomiting that irritates gums can further worsen the problem. Therefore such a plan could involve stopping smoking, changing medications, dietary and oral hygiene habits, correcting faulty restorations or treating malocclusion, in addition Understanding the etiology of periodontitis: an overview of periodontal risk … Genetics 10. Research has demonstrated that obesity will increase the risk for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, CVD, respiratory problems, and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers.1 It has also been demonstrated in a recent research study that obesity also increases the risk for periodontal disease, and it may be insulin … The good news is that the list of acknowledged and proven periodontal risk factors is relatively short and well-understood. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal … The list of Periodontal Gum Disease risk factors is long, but being more aware will enable you to make better choices about your oral care. As already stated, the non-modifiable risk factors are also referred to as ri… While some risk factors can be eliminated or modified, others cannot such as genetics. Many risk factors increase the likelihood of periodontal disease development, as well as the severity and speed at which it may occur. The gums become so loose that the outer layers can be easily rubbed away. Thomas M. Hassell, DDS, PhD, and . Available at: https://www.who.int/topics/risk_factors/en/. The aging process itself is suggested to be an independent risk factor for periodontal diseases (Papapanou et al., 1989). Periodontal Disease Risk Factors. Periodontol 2000. Several conditions can increase the susceptibility to periodontal disease, Certain factors increase the risk for periodontal disease: 1. Obesity 8. In addition to poor personal oral hygiene, there are a number of risk factors that may increase a patient s chances of developing periodontal disease, or gum disease. CONTENTS.. INTRODUCTION TERMINOLOGIES CLASSIFICATION OF RISK FACTORS RISK ELEMENTS FOR PERIODONTAL DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT 3. Smoking 2. To explore the characteristics and relevant risk factors of periodontal disease (PD) among hemodialysis patients. If you are at risk for periodontal disease, your dental office may refer you to a periodontist in Central PA who can help you reduce risk and improve your oral health. Risk factors. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Risk factors and risk assessment of periodontal disease. Risk Factors for developing Periodontal Disease, Bridges that no longer fit properly trap food debris and allow dental plaque to accumulate and grow between the crown and gums, Malocclusion - Crooked teeth make difficult the removal of dental plaque. We can advise you on what you can do to reduce your risk. Another common gums problem during pregnancy are the so called ‘pregnancy tumors’, large red lumps formed on inflamed gum tissue near the gum line. In 2002, Page et al19 published a periodontal risk calculator that included more than 10 risk factors, including smoking, age, diabetic condition, history of periodontal procedures, probing depth, BOP, type of restorations and bone height, among others. Smoking or chewing tobacco 7. According to the CDC, periodontal disease increased with age. Poor oral health habits 6. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease Several conditions can increase the susceptibility to periodontal disease, by either contributing to the formation of bacterial plaque or/and by reducing the body’s … Local risk factors can increase the risk of periodontal disease development and progression principally by acting as plaque retention factors. in over 80% of patients with periodontal disease there is also at least one or more of the other predisposing risk factors. In presence of any of these risk factors, extra care must be taken including careful oral hygiene and regular dental visits in order to avoid the development of periodontal diseases. Inadequate nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency 9. Periodontal disease affects millions of Americans each year. The information contained in the DentalDiseases.org Site, such as text, images, and other material is provided for informational purposes only. Smoking dries the mouth, which is … 2250 Millennium Way Suite 101, Enola, PA 17025, Implants: The Look & Feel of Natural Teeth, The Role of Periodontal Care in Diabetes Management, Flossing & Gum Health: Tips to Make Flossing a Habit. In fact, 70.1% of adults65 years and older have periodontal disease. One of the best ways to reduce your risk of periodontal disease is to visit your dental office regularly for professional dental cleanings and examination. We can help through providing customized dental treatment plans that can help to reduce the chances of developing periodontal disease, or which can manage this condition. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing periodontal disease. Hormonal changes (sometimes caused by pregnancy or menopause) 2. However, age is only one of the risk factors of periodontal disease. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. Dry mouth helps bacterial growth by increasing the level of mouth’s pH due to reduced flow of saliva that plays a regulatory role. On the one hand, the … Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature Yousef A. AlJehani Dental Health Department, Colleg e of Applied Medical Sciences, K ing Saud University, P .O. Menopause is linked to a painful condition called desquamative gingivitis, where the outer layers of the gums separate from the underlying tissue, exposing nerve endings. Patients genetically susceptible to gum disease may experience periodontal health problems even if they have good oral hygiene habits. Following publication of that article, Page and Martin20 introduced the Or… Author Jasim M Albandar. High levels of progesterone increase the blood flow and fluid retention of the gingival tissues causing swelling, irritation and tenderness of the gums. Older age 5. The risk factors for periodontal diseases can be classified broadly into two categories: modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. There are a number of risk factors for gum disease, but smoking is the most significant. Factors that increase the risk of disease include smoking, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, family history, and certain medications. Genco RJ, Borgnakke WS. Risk factors for periodontal disease. In contrast, a longitudinal study involving an elderly Scandinavian population (age 75 or older) demonstrated stable periodontal … Periodontal disease can develop with or without the risk factors listed below. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Multiple risk factors do not increase the risk in an additive manner, but rather in an exponential manner. These hereditary causes of gum disease involve several immune system defects that reduce the body’s ability to fight the anaerobic bacteria responsible for causing plaque and periodontal disease. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are clearly modified by local and systemic conditions called risk factors. Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. to conventional treatments for gum disease such as tooth scaling and root planning or gum surgery treatments. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. Obesity could be a potential risk factor for periodontal disease especially among younger individuals. This can result in a Pre-Term Low Birth Weight Baby. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. All rights reserved. A number of risk factors and models have been identified that can help clinicians develop a personalized periodontal treatment plan for every patient. Crooked teeth 7. Identification through genetic testing that a patient is in this high risk group should be followed by early interventive treatment to help them keep their teeth. Any plan for the prevention or treatment of periodontal diseases should target to eliminate or control as many risk factors and causes of gum disease as possible. Understanding your risk is the first step in understanding your disease. Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases. functional impairments and change in financial status. Poor oral hygiene 4. Other risk factors include: 1. Bridges that no longer fit properly 11. While poor oral hygiene and the overgrowth of certain types of harmful bacteria Copyright 2010-2017 DentalDiseases.org. Presented by Dr. Guru Ram Tej. 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