In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. 23. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Phenotypic and genotypic variation of this species have been studied in North America (L. M. King 1993; King and B. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Consortium of California Herbaria 2. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. IPNI, Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. Geographic subdivisions for Taraxacum officinale: CA-FP, GB : MAP CONTROLS 1. Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia. The characters in the key above help separate the two taxa. The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable. SEARS, P. B. Add an Observation. The family Asteraceae, best represented by the species of Taraxacum officinale, is known world wide for its manifold uses.It is widely used to cure kidney disease, swelling, skin problems, heart burn, eye inflammation, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal complaints, warts, liver/gallbladder problems, hepatitis B, cancer, etc., and widely used in modern medicine. [24] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[33] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. 1962. [50], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. Tax. [56] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. [30] The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. [13], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[14][15] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. The … Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wiggers 1780; Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus 1753. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. [5][6][7][8] The name "blowball" has also been used.[9]. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. [29], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. [in Japanese with an English abstract] Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. ... Pakistan. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. [34] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. Common dandelion, Dandelion, Red seeded dandelion Taraxacum officinale, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not ... Search efloras.org (Flora of North America) Photos on PlantID.net / Google Images. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Taraxacum officinale is the most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, though its abundance decreases in the arid south. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. ... Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. A note on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Grierson & Springate within 'Flora of Bhutan' Vol 2 Part 3 (2001) observed, "Taraxacum in our area consists of sexually producing and apomictic taxa. Pl. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . 1925. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). Safe foods and is not frost tender form the parachutes, are white to in... 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